Preparation of Foams   

Hand mix

The foams can be prepared by hand mix laboratory procedure or with a stirrer of 2" diameter at 2500 rpm. The polyol. diethanolamine, silicone surfactant and amine catalyst were blended for 1 minute in  a 2 liter (1/2 gallon) polyethylene or paper container and with the isocyanate for 7 seconds. The mixture is poured in an open box of 26 x 26 cm (10" x 10") or an aluminum mold sprayed with release agent.

The raise time can be measure with a ultrasonic foam height meter.   This instrument permits the measurement of rise time, start of rise,  max. rising height, rise speed and shrinkage. 

Most of the test methods for the raw materials for polyurethanes and the final products are  described by ASTM

TEST Standard Test Methods


Flexible Cellular Materials-Slab, Bonded, and Molded Urethane Foams D3574-95
Transmitted Shock Characteristics of Foam-in-Place Cushioning Materials  D4168-95
Compressive Properties Of Rigid Cellular Plastics D1621-00 
Apparent Density of Rigid Cellular Plastics D1622-98
Tensile And Tensile Adhesion Properties Of Rigid Cellular Plastics D1623-78(1995) 
Response of Rigid Cellular Plastics to Thermal and Humid Aging D2126-99 
Water Absorption of Rigid Cellular Plastics D2842-97
Open-Cell Content of Rigid Cellular Plastics by the Air Pycnometer D2856-94(1998) 
Flame Height, Time of Burning, and Loss of Mass of Rigid Thermoset Cellular Plastics in a Vertical Position D3014-99
Standard Specification for Preformed Cellular Plastic Joint Fillers for Relieving Pressure D3204-93(1998) 
Cell Size of Rigid Cellular Plastics   D3576-98 
Polyurethane "Poured in Place" Thermal Break Materials D5140-95 
Standard Guide for Application of New Spray Applied Polyurethane Foam and Coated Roofing Systems D5469-93
Open Cell Content of Rigid Cellular Plastics D6226-98

Thermal testing

Steady-State Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus C518-98
Standard Symbols for Heat Transmission C108-46(1998

Fire tests

 Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials E84-99
 Standard Terminology of Fire Standards E176-99a
 Standard Guide for Measurement of Gases Present or Generated During Fires E800-99
 Fire Testing of Real Scale Upholstered Furniture E1537-99
 Fire Testing of Mattresses E1590-99

Other tests not ASTM


Fogging  DIN 57201 B
Fogging VOC, 90C 30 min, GC/MS Daimler Chrysler PB VWT 709
HACS  Humid Aged Compression Sets ISO 2440
Hardness CLD 40 % DIN 53577
ILD and SAG factor DIN 53576
Fire tests give only an indication how a foam might perform under fire conditions, it does not measure the performance under actual fire conditions.

Last edited on:

November 22, 2006

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