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Polyether polyols are produced by addition of an epoxide on to a hydroxyl compound or water. The most common epoxides used are propylene oxide and ethylene oxide. There is a smaller market for longer chain epoxies. In addition tetrahydrofuran (THF) is used to prepare poly(tetramethylenether) glycols.
The polyols composition can also be varied based on MW, and functionality.
Considerations for selecting a polyol for an application
Chemistry Functionality

Characteristics

Applications
Polyether Di to octa functional. Diols  for highly flexible foams, coatings and adhesive  applications. Higher functional polyols  for crosslinked harder foams for laminates and harder coating uses. Polyether polyols give polymers with a low glass transition temperature (Tg). Because of their hydrophilic nature polyether polyols give more water sensitive and water absorbing polyols. The water sensitivity decreases from polyethyleneglycol to polypropyleneglycol to polytetramethyleneglycol. Polyethers are very stable to hydrolysis under basic pH conditions, but can be hydrolyzed at low pH.
Adhesives
Coatings
Elastomer
Flexible foams
Laminates
Rigid foam
Polymer Polyol Di to higher functionality Grafting of vinyl monomers on a polyether, the separate phase created permits the formulation of high resiliency foams for seating application. 
Polyester Di to poly functional. Applications are in areas which require improved mechanical properties. Polyester polyols produce polymers with a higher Tg, with increased mechanical properties and hardness. Polymers can be made with excellent exterior properties. Potential weakness is the hydrolytic stability under basic conditions.

Polyether polyol

Because of the differences in regulations and nomenclature in different countries the same polyol might be listed with different CAS # (Chemical Abstract Numbers, an universal classification system of chemical structures). In some instances different CAS # indicate a NPL classification for lower MW oligomers. (not longer a polymer rule under EINECS)
Starting diol/polyol/amine/epoxy Repeating unit/epoxy CAS # Functionality
PO-propoxy,  EO-ethoxy

WATER DIOL

     
Water propoxy 25322-69-4 2
Water propoxy ethoxy 9003-11-6 2
Water propoxy ethoxy, block 106392-12-5 2
Water ethoxy 25322-68-3 2
Ethyleneglycol propoxy 9051-48-3 2
Ethyleneglycol propoxy 31923-84-9 2
Diethyleneglycol propoxy 9051-51-8 2
Diethyleneglycol propoxy ethoxy 50658-23-6 2
1,4-butanediol/THF propoxy 25302-85-6 2
1,4-butanediol/THF propoxy ethoxy 31587-08-3 2
Neopentyl glycol propoxy 52479-58-0 2
Butylene oxide propoxy 25549-07-9 2
Butylene oxide propoxy, ethoxy 78339-21-6 2
Water THF, tetramethylene 25190-06-1 2
 

TRIOL

Repeating unit/epoxy CAS # Functionality
Glycerol propoxy 25791-96-2 3
Glycerol propoxy ethoxy 9082-00-2 3
Glycerol propoxy ethoxy 68936-80-1 3
Glycerol ethoxy 31694-55-0 3
 
Trimethylolpropane  propoxy 25723-16-4 3
Trimethylolpropane  propoxy 25765-36-0 3
Trimethylolpropane  propoxy ethoxy 52624-57-4 3
Trimethylolpropane  propoxy ethoxy 26062-52-2 3
Trimethylolpropane, propylene glycol  propoxy ethoxy 53424-30-9 3
 

TETROL

Repeating unit/epoxy CAS # Functionality
Pentaerythritol propoxy 9051-49-4 4
Pentaerythritol propoxy ethoxy 58205-99-5 4
Pentaerythritol propoxy ethoxy 30374-35-7 4

POLYOL

Repeating unit/epoxy CAS # Functionality
Sorbitol, Mannitol propoxy 52625-12-4 6
Sorbitol, Mannitol propoxy 52625-13-5 6
Sorbitol, Mannitol propoxy ethoxy 56449-05-9 6
Sucrose propoxy 9049-71-2 8
Sucrose propoxy 29192-34-5 8
Sucrose propoxy ethoxy 26301-10-0 8

PHENOL

Repeating unit/epoxy CAS # Functionality
Bisphenol A propoxy 37353-75-6 2
Bisphenol A propoxy 29694-85-7 2
Bisphenol A propoxy 33393-97-4 2
Bisphenol A ethoxy 29086-67-7 2
 
Bisphenol A propoxy ethoxy 52367-02-9 2
Bisphenol A propoxy ethoxy 65324-64-3 2
Tetrabromo bisphenol A propoxy 55185-21-2 2
Nonylphenol, formaldehyde propoxy ethoxy 63428-92-2 2
Nonylphenol, formaldehyde propoxy ethoxy 193562-40-2 2
Nonylphenol, formaldehyde propoxy ethoxy 153795-76-7 2
Nonylphenol, formaldehyde propoxy ethoxy 69011-27-4 2
p-t-Butyl phenol, formaldehyde propoxy  193635-30-2 2
p-t-Butyl phenol, nonyl phenol formaldehyde propoxy ethoxy 69011-25-2 2
p-t-Butyl phenol, formaldehyde propoxy ethoxy 30704-64-4 2
Phenol formaldehyde propoxy 25359-40-4 >2
Phenol formaldehyde propoxy 193635-29-9 >2
Phenol formaldehyde ethoxy 25134-86-5 >2
Bis[4-(2-hydroxypropoxy)phenyl] sulfone  propoxy 50326-38-0 2

AMINE

Repeating unit/epoxy CAS # Functionality
Ethanolamine propoxy 35176-07-9 3
Ethanolamine propoxy ethoxy 32439-74-0 3
Diethanolamine propoxy ethoxy 34354-45-5 3
Propanolamine propoxy 35110-63-5 3
Triethanolamine propoxy 26221-30-7 3
Triethanolamine propoxy 37208-53-0 3
Triethanolamine propoxy ethoxy 37280-83-4 3
Ethylene diamine propoxy 51178-86-0 4
Ethylene diamine propoxy 102-60-3 4
Ethylene diamine propoxy 25214-63-5 4
Ethylene diamine propoxy ethoxy 26316-40-5 4
Ethylene diamine ethoxy 27014-42-2 4
Diethylenetriamine propoxy 29380-50-5 5
Triethylenetetramine propoxy ethoxy 67939-72-4 6
2-Methylimidazole, imidazole propoxy 69011-81-0
Aniline-formaldehyde propoxy 25084-89-3 >4
N-(2-aminoethyl)piperazine propoxy, styrene oxide 70247-96-0 3
Phenol, formaldehyde, diethanolamine propoxy 68909-26-2 4
Phenol, formaldehyde, diethanolamine propoxy 72207-70-6 4
Nonylphenol, formaldehyde, diethanolamine propoxy 68610-97-9 4
Methylenedianiline propoxy 67786-32-7 4
4,4'-Diaminodiphenylmethane, 1,2-propylene glycol propoxy 75864-24-3 >2
Toluenediamine propoxy 63641-63-4 4
Toluenediamine propoxy ethoxy 67800-94-6 4
Toluenediamine, propylene glycol propoxy 75847-80-2 >2

Polymer Polyol

Repeating unit/epoxy CAS # Functionality
Glycerol, allyl glycidyl ether, acrylonitrile, styrene polymer propoxy ethoxy 58945-20-3 3
Acrylonitrile, styrene,  sorbitol, glycerol, polymer propoxy ethoxy 68992-16-5 3-6
Acrylonitrile, styrene,  sorbitol, glycerol, polymer propoxy ethoxy 68650-94-2
Glycerol, acrylonitrile, styrene polymer propoxy ethoxy 68541-83-3 3
Glycerol, acrylonitrile, styrene polymer propoxy ethoxy 57913-80-1 3
Propylene glycol, acrylonitrile, allyl glycidyl ether, styrene polymer propoxy ethoxy 68334-82-7 2
Acrylonitrile, styrene polymer propoxy ethoxy 58050-75-2
Allyl alcohol, allyl glycidyl ether, acrylonitrile, styrene polymer propoxy ethoxy 68555-38-4
Glycerol, acrylonitrile, 1,1-dichloroethylene, styrene polymer propoxy ethoxy 124199-65-1
Acrylonitrile, styrene , trimethylolpropane polymer propoxy ethoxy 103513-16-2

Other

Repeating unit/epoxy CAS # Functionality
Epichlorohydrine propoxy 24969-08-2 2
Epichlorohydrine propoxy ethoxy 25931-44-6 2
Epichlorohydrine ethoxy 24969-10-6 2
Carbon dioxide propoxy 25511-85-7 2
Diethylenetriamine, sucrose propoxy ethoxy 42080-52-4 <5
Phosphoric propoxy 28409-84-9 3
Phosphoric propoxy 52503-24-9 3
Phosphoric propoxy ethoxy 37280-82-3 3
Acrylonitrile-glycerol  propoxy 32236-60-5 >3
p-Aminobenzoic acid propoxy 68442-73-9 3
Acrylonitrile, triethylenetetramine propoxy 68400-65-7
Urea propoxy 172304-97-1
Tris(2-hydroxyethyl)isocyanuric acid  propoxy 172640-56-1 3
Castor oil, hydrogenated propoxy ethoxy 103479-06-7

Last edited on:

November 14, 2006

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