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Flow and Leveling


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Film thickness, χ





Flow and leveling of a
coating is important for the appearance of a coating system.
Every application process of a liquid coating results in uneven
surface which has to flow and smoothen before drying or curing.





cm


Striations, λ per











cm


Surface tension, γ










dynes/cm


Viscosity, η_{L}










Poise


The Orchard equation
t_{1/2}=C_{1}η_{L}.λ^{4}/γ.χ^{3}
permits the calculation of flow and leveling of coating surfaces
as a function of film thickness, viscosity, surface tension and
striation of the coating surface.
Half Time, t_{1/2 }is A/2.

Constant (C_{1})

t_{1/2} equation


0.0133



Results

Half Time, sec, t_{1/2 } t_{1/2}=C_{1}η_{L}.λ^{4}/γ.χ^{3}


Film thickness, χ




























Viscosity, η_{L}



























































































































































Half Time, sec, t_{1/2 } t_{1/2}=C_{1}η_{L}.λ^{4}/γ.χ^{3}


Film thickness, χ




























Surface tension,
γ



























































































































































Half Time, sec, t_{1/2 }t_{1/2}=C_{1}η_{L}.λ^{4}/γ.χ^{3}


Surface tension, γ




























Viscosity, η_{L}


























































































































































Coatings Technology Handbook by Arthur A. Tracton (Editor),
S. Orchard Appl. Sci. Res. A11, 451, (1962)
